1. Using our core concept of flow-down gradients, explain the movement of glucose in and out of the nephron.
2. Using our core concept of homeostasis, explain how the kidney is involved in controlling fluid osmolarity .
3. Compare where and the results of diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport in the nephron.
4. Compare where and the results of the processes of filtration, reabsorption, secretion and excretion.
5. Explain the concepts of specificity, competition, and saturation as they relate to carrier proteins which are involved in the nephrons secretion and reabsorption of molecules and ions.
6. Compare the structure and functions of the major regions of the nephron.
7. Compare the structure and function of cortical and juxtamedullary nephrons.
8. Discuss the effect of renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone on blood pressure. (Be thorough, specific, and accurate).
9. Explain how the vertical concentration gradient in the medulla and the concentration of vasopressin influences the volume and osmolarity of urine produced.
10. Compare the mechanism and effect of loop diuretics, thiazide diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and ARBs (angiotensin II receptor blockers).
NOTE: DO NOT CITE THESE QUESTIONS, MAKE THEM IN YOUR OWN WORDS AND HAS TO BE LONG PARAGRAPH FOR EACH QUESTION.