multiple questions- USE ONLY ASSINGED TEXT

Instructions for the test
Read the instructions carefully so that you can properly write the assigned essay. The due date for this essay is Thursday,October 1, 2015. The text should be handed in, printed and stapled, following a Microsoft Word format, a letter size twelve (12) and a spacing of one and a half (1.5) between sentences (or line spacing in the paragraph options). The extension of the work should not be less than three (3) pages or greater than five (5) pages of content.
At the end of your essay you will list the References used. Plagiarism will not be tolerated. The written essay should be a product that reflects your understanding and interpretation (substantiated with arguments, evidence and reasoning, expressed in a clear, consistent, and accurate matter) of the assigned readings and discussions in class. DO NOT USE INTERNET SOURCES and limit yourself to the assigned texts.

ESSAY Instructions:
To understand the validity of an instrument we must critically assess the core concepts that supposedly are being defined, measured and applied in a psychometric test. Having that in mind we have, during the second unit, critically revised the concept of “Intelligence” since the beginnings of “mental tests”, in the late XIX century, until the more recent theories of Intelligence developed in late XX century (specially during the 1980s and 1990s). For that reason the purpose of the this test is to elaborate a single essay that discusses the following:
1. How certain interpretations of the concept of evolution influenced the instrumentation and measurement of “Intelligence” in the “Nature vs. Nurture” debate at the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century.
2. The problems and limitations regarding how “Intelligence” has been measured, defined and applied.
3. How recent theories, specially Robert Sternberg’s and Howard Gardner’s theories, have tried to solve some of these problems and limitations.
It is advisable that you take into account the following “guidelines” when elaborating your discussion:
1. Take into consideration the historical overview regarding the theory of evolution and individual differences as discussed in class and on Hergenhahn and Hanley’s (2014) text. It also advisable to look at Sternberg’s (2003) historical revision of some of the theories of Intelligence.
2. Focus on one of the recent theories, either Sternberg’s or Gardner’s, giving examples on how they prove that “Intelligence” cannot be reduced to what usual and traditional psychometric tests measure.
3. Use at least two (2) of the assigned texts. 

Assigned texts (in the order they were assigned).
Hergenhahn, B.R. & Henley, T.B. (2014). Evolution and Individual Differences. In B.R. 1. Hergenhahn & Tracy B. Henley, An Introduction to the History of Psychology (279- 319). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Sternberg, R. (2003). Intelligence. In Donald K. Freedheim & Irving B. Weiner, Handbook of Psychology: Volume I, History of Psychology (135-156). New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.
Sternberg, R. (2009). The Theory of a Successful Intelligence. In James C. Kaufman & Elena L. Grigorenko (Eds.), The Essential Sternberg (71-101). New York: Springer.
Gardner, H. (1989). Multiple Intelligences Go to School: Educational Implication of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Educational Researcher 18 (8): 4-10.
Gardner, H. (1995). Reflections on Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages. The Phi Delta Kappan 77 (3): 200-203, 206-209