Please answer all the multiple choice questions with correct answer and as well answer the rest off all questions Biology
Can a PMO accelerate the implementation Process?
March 16, 2019
Educational paper literature review 3
March 16, 2019

Please answer all the multiple choice questions with correct answer and as well answer the rest off all questions Biology

Chromosomes are duplicated during the ____ of the cell cycle.

a.

G2 phase

b.

S phase

c.

G1 phase

d.

metaphase

e.

prophase

Eukaryotic chromosomes are composed of:

a.

karyotypes.

b.

DNA only.

c.

proteins only.

d.

chromatin.

e.

circular chromatin.

The mitotic spindle is made of:

a.

condensin.

b.

Z rings.

c.

microtubules.

d.

motor proteins.

e.

histones

Homologous chromosomes can be identified and/or characterized by:

a.

paternal chromosomes only.

b.

maternal chromosomes only.

c.

those chromosomes that do not have partners.

d.

the different centromere positions in the maternal vs. paternal chromosomes.

e.

their similar and characteristic staining patterns.

____ contain identical DNA sequences and are held together by ____ during mitosis.

a.

Sister chromatids; cohesin proteins

b.

Daughter chromosomes; ionic bonding

c.

Daughter chromosomes; hydrogen bonding

d.

Sister chromosomes; histone proteins

e.

Sister chromatids; spindle fibers

____ organized on chromosomes carry the information that controls the functions of the cell.

a.

Proteins

b.

Asters

c.

Histones

d.

Genes

e.

Nucleosomes

In a human cell at prophase I, there are ____ tetrads.

a.

92

b.

46

c.

23

d.

2

e.

4

Nucleosomes are best described as:

a.

eukaryotic DNA associated with histone proteins.

b.

prokaryotic DNA associated with nonhistone proteins.

c.

eukaryotic DNA associated with nonhistone proteins.

d.

prokaryotic DNA associated with histone proteins.

e.

eukaryotic DNA associated with scaffolding proteins.

In a prometaphase cell, the:

a.

spindle fibers pull chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell.

b.

mitotic spindle is beginning to assemble.

c.

nucleolus disappears.

d.

nuclear envelope is visible with the light microscope.

e.

duplicated chromosomes become visible with the light microscope.

In unwound chromatin, nucleosomes are organized into large coiled loops held together by:

a.

condensins.

b.

scaffolding proteins.

c.

histones.

d.

kinetochore proteins.

e.

centromere

Compare and contrast the general processes of asexual and sexual reproduction.

Homologous chromosomes undergo synapsis during:

a.

anaphase II.

b.

prophase I.

c.

telophase II.

d.

anaphase I.

e.

prophase II.

A nucleosome consists of DNA wrapped around scaffolding proteins.
__________________

True

False

To control the cell cycle:

a.

the anaphase-promoting complex stimulates DNA replication.

b.

Cdks are active only when they are released from cyclins.

c.

the activity of Cdks stays the same throughout the cell cycle.

d.

M-Cdk inhibits mitosis.

e.

cyclins fluctuate during the cell cycle.

Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of:

a.

linear DNA molecules complexed with negatively charged histone proteins.

b.

circular DNA molecules complexed with negatively charged histone proteins.

c.

circular DNA molecules complexed with positively charged nonhistone proteins.

d.

circular DNA molecules folded to fit inside a bacterial cell.

e.

linear DNA molecules complexed with positively charged histone proteins.

A bacterial chromosome consists of a:

a.

circular DNA molecule smaller than the cell.

b.

linear DNA molecule many times larger than the cell.

c.

circular DNA molecule many times larger than the cell.

d.

linear DNA molecule smaller than the cell.

e.

linear or circular DNA molecule smaller than the cell

A cell in the G2 phase:

a.

is in mitosis.

b.

has visibly distinct chromosomes.

c.

has twice the amount of DNA present in a telophase nucleus.

d.

lacks a visible nuclear membrane.

e.

is in cytokinesis.

To prevent disastrous consequences, the eukaryotic cell cycle is controlled by:

a.

environmental signals.

b.

the mitochondria.

c.

replication.

d.

a series of cell cycle checkpoints.

e.

a very detailed, rigid genetic program.

Cytokinesis in plant cells occurs via the formation of a(n):

a.

mitotic spindle.

b.

Golgi complex.

c.

cell wall.

d.

cell plate.

e.

aster.

During which stage of meiosis do the sister chromatids separate?

a.

anaphase I

b.

anaphase II

c.

metaphase II

d.

metaphase I

e.

telophase II

The function of nucleosomes is to:

a.

prevent DNA strands from tangling.

b.

help DNA replicate.

c.

make RNA synthesis possible.

d.

prevent RNA from tangling with DNA during transcription.

e.

prevent histones from tangling.

During prophase I, each chiasma represents:

a.

the site where sister chromatids are connected.

b.

a newly formed haploid gamete.

c.

the remnants of the nuclear envelope.

d.

the remnant of the nucleolus.

e.

a site of crossing-over.

In fungi and protists, gametes produced by ____ of haploid cells fuse to form a ____ zygote, which then undergoes ____ to restore the haploid chromosome number.

a.

meiosis, diploid, mitosis

b.

mitosis, diploid, mitosis

c.

meiosis, haploid, mitosis

d.

mitosis, diploid, meiosis

e.

mitosis, haploid, meiosis

During prophase, ____ is(are) compacted into visible chromosomes.

a.

centrioles

b.

tetrads

c.

centromeres

d.

chromatin

e.

kinetochores

What evolutionary advantage is provided by sexual reproduction?

a.

making clones

b.

removal of all genetic mutations

c.

increased genetic diversity

d.

production of genetically identical offspring

e.

making polyploidy possible

Gametophyte plants produce gametes using:

a.

polyploidy.

b.

mitosis.

c.

fertilization.

d.

sporogenesis.

e.

meiosis.

The ____ is responsible for the separation of the chromosomes during the ____ of mitosis.

a.

centromere; telophase

b.

cell wall; anaphase

c.

mitotic spindle; interphase

d.

mitotic spindle; anaphase

e.

kinetochore; prophase

The cell cycle of a typical somatic cell consists of the ____ and M phases.

a.

meiosis I

b.

crossing-over

c.

interphase

d.

mitosis

e.

meiosis II

An animal with a diploid number of 36 chromosomes will have ____ chromosomes in its gametes and ____ chromosomes in its somatic cells.

a.

18; 36

b.

18; 18

c.

36; 72

d.

36; 36

e.

36; 18

A cell is dividing by binary fission. What can you conclude?

a.

The cyclin-Cdk complex is no longer phosphorylating enzymes.

b.

The cell is prokaryotic.

c.

The cell cycle is out of control.

d.

Homologous chromosomes have already paired.

e.

Mitosis has taken place without cytokinesis.

The M phase of the cell cycle involves two main processes:

a.

mitosis and cytokinesis.

b.

meiosis I and meiosis II.

c.

mitosis and meiosis.

d.

homologous pairing and crossing over.

e.

interphase and mitosis.

When is a cell in metaphase?

a.

The chromosomes are visible as threadlike structures.

b.

The nuclear envelope is clearly visible.

c.

The chromosomes are aligned at the midplane of the cell.

d.

The chromosome are separated into distinct groups at opposite poles of the cell.

e.

Cytokinesis is occurring.

At the completion of oogenesis, ____ are produced.

a.

one egg cell and three polar bodies

b.

four sperm cells

c.

haploid spores

d.

four egg cells

e.

male gametes

Plant hormones known as ____ stimulate mitosis.

a.

cohesins

b.

growth factors

c.

cytokinins

d.

cyclins

e.

scaffolding proteins

During prophase I of meiosis, homologous chromosomes lie side by side. This phenomenon is known as:

a.

chromatid pairing.

b.

paternal pairing.

c.

DNA replication.

d.

parental pairing.

e.

tetrad formation

Once nerve cells become mature, they do not typically undergo cell division. Based on your knowledge of the cell cycle, you might predict that mature nerve cells become arrested in the ____ of the cell cycle.

a.

G1 phase

b.

S phase

c.

G2 phase

d.

prophase

e.

G0 phase

What is the function of kinetochores?

a.

Kinetochores are the site of DNA synthesis.

b.

Kinetochores are involved in cytokinesis.

c.

Kinetochores regulate the length of the cell cycle.

d.

Kinetochores attach to microtubules during mitosis.

e.

Kinetochores anchor spindle fibers to the centrioles

Cytokinesis in animal cells involves contraction of a ring of ____ microfilaments.

a.

cyclin plus actin

b.

cyclin plus myosin

c.

actin plus myosin

d.

tubulin plus actin

e.

cohesin plus actin

 

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