The essay must be turned in to me.You must also prepare and submit an essay outline and bibliography on March 4, 2016, to formulate your topic, create a research plan, and receive critical feedback and suggestions, all of which will facilitate the completion of the essay project. Late submissions of the outline and bibliography will receive comments, but no grade. The outline and bibliography are worth 5% of your final grade. The essay is worth 30% of your final grade.Late Penalties: 5% will be deducted each day for essays turned in late. No essays will be accepted after April 13, 2016. Any not received by that date will receive a mark of 0%.Length: 10 pages, double-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font. A cover page is not necessary and does NOT count towards the page minimum. Up to one-page bibliography can count towards the page minimum.Citations: Citations must be in footnotes, not in text. You WILL lose marks if you refuse to follow this instruction. These citations must include page numbers. If you do not know how to use footnotes in your word processor, ask me. The number of footnotes should average out to at least three per page.Evaluation: The essay is worth 30% of your total grade. It will be marked out of 60:-5 points for structure (e.g. does it have an introduction and conclusion; does it have a clear thesis; do ideas and paragraphs flow logically)-5 points for writing style: this includes spelling, grammar, clarity, conforming to the correct citation style (footnotes)-25 points for appropriate research effectively and correctly used and cited.-25 points for the argument: is it effective, convincing, logical, supported by your research and by the ancient texts you use.Each of these parts does not stand alone, however. Essays are more than the sum of their party. Sometimes a particularly strong argument can overcome weak research structure. On the other hand, pervasive problems in logical flow or sentence construction obscure good ideas and research. Therefore, the categories can have both positive and negative influences on each other. Give attention to the clarity of your writing, ensuring that the ideas you have are expressed effectively and that the evidence supports any statements you make. Make sure to take into account even evidence that does not support your point. Your essay will be stronger if you address conflicting facts and reconcile them to your argument or convincingly dismiss them.It will be necessary to do research beyond your course readings to write on these topics.You must use a minimum of three secondary (modern) sources and two primary (ancient)sources in your paper. Try to avoid using modern sources that are more than twenty-five years old, as the information and approach may be out of date, particularly in the case of scholarship written before 1970. Course notes for this class or any other class areNOT an acceptable secondary source.If you submit a complete draft before midnight on March 21, 2016, I will return it to you with suggestions for improvement.Citing your sources: In this essay, you are expected to cite your sources, both primary(ancient) and secondary (modern), in footnotes and to compile a bibliography. In-text citations are not acceptable. Your word processor program will automatically create footnotes for you with the insert footnote function. You may find it helpful to follow the template for Chicago Style footnotes and bibliography. For more information on the Chicago Style, check the Chicago Style Manual (15th edition, copies are available in the university library and online).Internet sources: Do not use internet sources such as Wikipedia.com or other –potentially even more unreliable – websites, including blogs. They will not be accepted as secondary (modern) sources. Instead, use respectable secondary (modern) sources; that is, use monographs and scholarly articles (you will find them in your Concordia libraries and via JSTOR). If you have any questions about whether a source is acceptable, ask me.Essay topicsThese are general and broad topics. Your essay will not address every single aspect of the topic you choose. Instead, you will formulate a specific thesis about the topic that your essay will prove through argumentation and analysis based on examples from the primary sources.1) Writing from the perspective of Mark Antony, compose a response to Cicero’sSecond Philippic. You must refute specific claims made by Cicero in his speech and make counter-claims attacking Cicero. You must base your response information from primary texts about the two men. Your writing should also show some awareness of common Roman rhetorical techniques and Roman cultural values and political practices.2) How do Cicero and Catullus use discourse involving different aspects of love and hate to illustrate what it means to be (and not to be!) a man in Roman society?What type(s) of masculinity do they approve or disapprove of? Why? To what extent do their authorial personae conform to Roman standards of masculinity?3) Compare and contrast the depiction of gods, heroes, and religious rites Ovid's love poetry (the Amores and the Art of Love) and in Vergil’s Aeneid.Which gods and heroes figure in the different types of poetry? Why? Are there any that are surprising? Why? How do the poets treat Roman (or proto-Roman)religious rites?If you wish to write on any other topic, it must be approved by the professor first.